Files/Folders

This document is a guide for information related to Files and Folders. All the Command lines will be provided here with the explanation plus the example.

For more details of the instruction, see KOOMPI OS website articles or the various program section, both linked from this guide.



Create File

Knowing how to create a new file is an important skill for anyone using open-source regularly. You can create a new file either from the command line or from the desktop file manager.

The touch command allows us to update the timestamps on existing files and directories as well as creating, empty files. The only easiest and most memorable way to create new, empty files is by using the touch command.

To create a new file simply run the touch command followed by the name of the file you want to create:

 touch Files_Name.txt

You can also create multiple files at once by specifying the file names separated by space.

 touch File_Name1.txt File_Name2.txt File_Name3.txt

.txt stand for the text file. You can also use other extensions for the kind of files you want to use.

Besides Touch, echo can also use to create file too. The echo command prints the strings that are passed as arguments to the standard output, which can be redirected to a file.

 echo "some line" >> File_Name.txt

For Example:

 echo $null >> sample.txt

$null here is standing for no. It means there will be no arguments redirected into the file.

Deleting File

Deleting File is one of the frequently done operation. Run rm command with the name of the file you want to remove:

 rm File_Name

Here is an example

 rm sample.txt 

Display File Content

Cat(concatenate) command is very frequently used in open-source. It reads data from the file and gives their content as output. It helps us to create, view, concatenate files. So let us see some frequently used cat commands.

 cat File_Name

Edit Text File

There are many ways to edit files through command line such as vi, emacs, pico, ed, and nano. Among those only Nano is regularly using.

 nano File_Name

Sometimes, we need to add sudo; which stand for superuser do, in front of it to edit.

 sudo nano File_Name

Copy File or Folder

A basic example of the cp command to copy files (keep the original file and make a duplicate of it) might look like:

 cp File_Name NewFile_Name

If you want to copy other file from one directory to other directory, you can use the command below:

cp -R <source_folder> <destination_folder>

Options

-i for interactive, asks you to confirm if an existing file (perhaps a version of joe_expenses already exists in the cashflow directory) should be overwritten in the copying process.

-r for recursive, to copy all the subdirectories and files in a given directory and preserve the tree structure.

-v for verbose, shows files being copied one by one.

Move/Rename file or folder

For instance, to instantly seek out and move all of the folder. Your command-line instruction would simply be:

 mv Folder_Name NewFolder_Name

Create Folder

we can create directories from command line using the command mkdir. Syntax of this command is explained below.

 mkdir Folder_Name

For example, to create a folder named ‘newfolder‘ the command is:

 mkdir NewFolder

Remove Folder

Removing folder is like removing the file, too but it has a little bit different. You have to add -r after rm command.

 rm -r Folder_Name

List Folder Contents

Listing Command (ls) allows us to see all the contents in the directory we are in.

 ls

Options

Options Descriptions
ls -a list all files including hidden file starting with '.'
ls –color colored list [=always/never/auto]
ls -d list directories - with ' */'
ls -F add one char of */=>@| to enteries
ls -i list file's inode index number
ls -l list with long format - show permissions
ls -la list long format including hidden files
ls -lh list long format with readable file size
ls -ls list with long format with file size
ls -r list in reverse order
ls -R list recursively directory tree

For more info use --help after the command like this `ls –help``.

Change Folder or Directory

cd is the command for changing the folder/directory of the command line. Here its syntax:

 cd Folder_Name

Changing to home directory (determined by $HOME environment variable):

 cd

Also change to home directory:

 cd .

Change to parent directory:

 cd ..

Change to subdirectory Documents:

 cd Documents

Change to directory with absolute path

 cd path1/path2/path3

Change to directory name with white space -path Name

 cd path\ Name 

\ here is stand for white space !!!

Show Current Folder

To show the directory you are currently in:

 pwd

Output :

 /home/koompi

To make links between files you need to use ln command. A symbolic link (also known as a soft link or symlink) consists of a special type of file that serves as a reference to another file or directory.

ln [FileName] [LinkName]

Find Phrase Within File

The grep command is used to search text. It searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words. It is one of the most useful commands.

Below is some standard grep command explained with examples to get you started with grep. Search any line that contains the word in filename.

 grep 'Strings' FileName

Perform a case-insensitive search for the word:

 grep -i 'Strings' FileName

Looking for all files in the current directory and in all of its subdirectories.

 grep -R 'Strings'

Searching and displaying the total number of times that the string appears in FileName.

 grep -c 'Strings' FileName

Searching by paths:

 grep 'Strings' path/path/path

Mount Filesystem

You can mount the filesystem with the syntax below:

 mount /dev/[device] [path]

Unmount Filesystem

You can also unmount filesystem with command below.

 unmount [path]

Make File Executable

Change the rights to a file so that it can run as a program.

 chmod +x filename

List Trash Files

As you have already known what is ls command, you should know the path of the trash file.

 ls -l files ~/.local/share/Trash/files

Empty Trash

Above are the paths of trash file, we can empty it with rm -r command:

 rm -r ~/.locale/share/Trash